Awesome question! I think it would be difficult to create a truly comprehensive list, given the global nature of the sport and the way it cropped up so quickly around the world. No doubt the Chinese shooters have their own list of greats, and there's probably a fellow in W. Africa who is heralded as the grandfather of slingshots in that region. It would be so awesome if all these disparate groups recorded their own lists along with little details about the person's life so we could combine them and read about cool people the world over.
I won't add any names to those listed above (as my knowledge isn't as extensive as the commenter's above), but I think you could proabably come up with broad categories to help you organize these 'legends'. For instance:
Pioneers: These would be the guys like Rufus Hussey who really showed people what could be done with a slingshot. They're the first notable shooters who achieved accuracy beyond hitting road signs with gravel rocks. They pushed the boundaries of how we viewed and used slingshots.
Builders: These people have re-invented the slingshot dozens of times over. Evolving the concept of a 'Y' shaped branch, they have not only crafted new types of frames and bandsets, but often create entire companies that get these innovative designs into the hands of others. Their designs are toys, tools, weapons, art, and oftentimes some combination thereof. We've had a ton of these on the forum, from private builders who do it for fun or a side income, to fulltime professionals who run their own business.
Marketers: Not the best title, but I think you have to create this category for the people who simply spread the word of slingshots. Many of them may be found in the pioneer or builder category as well (Rufus Hussey appeared on The Tonight Show, Bill Hays not only builds slingshots but also creates videos with instructions and trick shots, appears at tournaments, etc). However, I think you have to include anyone who has significantly popularized slingshots regardless of skill level.
Innovators: Those shooters who came up with new concepts that changed how everyone perceived slingshots. Who came up with the idea for the wrist brace? What about the slingbow? When did we start shooting full butterfly? Who popularized the PFS? (I'm thinking Dgui but no-one shoot me if I'm wrong).
Anyway, I'd love to see a collection of these characters. Maybe some pictures of them or their setups. Would you all add any other categories?